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Propping agents and fracture conductivity

Propping agents are required to "prop open" the fracture once the pumps are shut down and the fracture begins to close. The ideal propping agent is strong, resistant to crushing, resistant to corrosion, has a low density, and is readily available at low cost. The products that best meet these desired traits are silica sand, resin-coated sand (RCS), and ceramic proppants. Read more....

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Gas chromatography


Gas chromatography (GC), is commonly used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined).

In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas like helium or an unreactive gas like nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column. The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator").

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